Plagiarism policy

Plagiarism is not only the intentional copying of the words of another and claiming them as one's own. Plagiarism also includes the author's copying of her or his own previously published material, i.e. self-plagiarism. Plagiarism includes, but is not limited to,

  • 1. Verbatim copying, near-verbatim copying, or purposely paraphrasing portions of another author's paper;
  • 2. Verbatim copying, or near-verbatim reuse of significant portions of one's own copyrighted work without citing the original source (self-plagiarism);
  • 3. Copying elements of another author's paper, such as equations or illustrations that are not common knowledge, or copying or purposely paraphrasing sentences without citing the source; and
  • 4. Verbatim copying of portions of another author's paper with citing but not clearly differentiating what text has been copied (e.g., not applying quotation marks correctly) and/or not citing the source correctly (source).

Plagiarism is not a crime per se, but we consider it a serious ethical offense against intellectual property rights. Consequently, each manuscript is screened for plagiarism against previously published works using CrossCheck.

CrossCheck is a multi-publisher initiative to screen published and submitted content for originality. uses the iThenticate software to detect instances of overlapping and similar text in submitted manuscripts. Wherever you see the “CrossCheck Deposited” or “CrossCheck Depositor” logos, you can be reassured that the publisher whose content you are reading is committed to actively combating plagiarism and publishing original research.

To find out more about CrossCheck visit

iThenticate is also available to our donator members who wish to check their papers before submission regardless of whether they publish with us. iThenticate compares submitted documents to extensive data repositories to create a comprehensive Similarity Report, which highlights and provides links to any significant text matches, helping to ensure that you are submitting an original and well-attributed document.'s website is licenced under a CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 licence.