Classification of Swedish learner essays by CEFR levels

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© 2016 Elena Volodina, Ildikó Pilán, David Alfter.


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Abstract

The paper describes initial efforts on creating a system for the automatic assessment of Swedish second language (L2) learner essays from two points of view: holistic evaluation of the reached level according to the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR), and the lexical analysis of texts for receptive and productive vocabulary per CEFR level. We describe the data and resources that our experiments were based on, provide a short introduction to the algorithm for essay classification and experiment results, present the user interface we developed for testing new essays, and outline future work.

Keywords: automatic online L2 essay classification, lexical complexity assessment, productive and receptive vocabulary by CEFR levels.

References

Burstein, J., & Chodorow, M. (2010). Progress and new directions in technology for automated essay evaluation. In R. B. Kaplan (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of applied linguistics (2 ed.). Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195384253.013.0036

Council of Europe. (2001). The common European framework of reference for languages: learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge University Press.

François, T., Volodina, E., Pilán, I., & Tack, A. (2016). SVALex: a CEFR-graded lexical resource for Swedish foreign and second language learners. Proceedings of LREC 2016, Slovenia.

Hancke, J., & Meurers, D. (2013). Exploring CEFR classification for German based on rich linguistic modeling. LCR 2013.

Llozhi, L. (2016). SWELL LIST. A list of productive vocabulary generated from second language learners’ essays. Master Thesis. University of Gothenburg.

Pilán, I., Vajjala, S., & Volodina, E. (forthcoming). A readable read: automatic assessment of language learning materials based on linguistic complexity. To appear in International Journal of Computational Linguistics and Applications (IJLCA).

Vajjala, S., Lõo, K. (2014). Automatic CEFR level prediction for Estonian learner text. Proceedings of the third workshop on NLP for computer-assisted language learning. NEALT Proceedings Series 22 / Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings 107.

Volodina, E., Pilán, I., Enström, I., Llozhi, L., Lundkvist, P., Sundberg, G., & Sandell, M. (2016). SweLL on the rise: Swedish learner language corpus for European reference level studies. Proceedings of LREC 2016, Slovenia.

Östling, R., Smolentzov, A., Tyrefors Hinnerich, B., & Höglin, E. (2013). Automated essay scoring for Swedish. The 8th Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications, US.

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Volodina, Elena; Pilán, Ildikó; Alfter, David. (2016). Classification of Swedish learner essays by CEFR levels. In Salomi Papadima-Sophocleous, Linda Bradley, Sylvie Thouësny (Eds), CALL communities and culture – short papers from EUROCALL 2016 (pp. 456-461). Research-publishing.net. https://doi.org/10.14705/rpnet.2016.eurocall2016.606

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